James Madison saw Bernie Madoff 220 years in advance. That so many supposedly bright people were duped by Madoff testifies to their ignorance or disregard of history and to what may be an approaching nadir in the cycle of American public virtue.
At the Convention called by the Commonwealth of Virginia to debate the newly proposed U.S. Constitution, Madison declared, in support of the Constitution:
But I go on this great republican principle, that the people will have virtue and intelligence to select men of virtue and wisdom. Is there no virtue among us? If there be not, we are in a wretched situation. No theoretical checks, no form of government, can render us secure. To suppose that any form of government will secure liberty or happiness without any virtue in the people, is a chimerical idea. Continue reading